Category: 5G



    To protect messages that are sent over the N32 interface, the 5G system architecture implements Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP) at the perimeter of the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) network. SEPP receives all service layer messages from the Network Function (NF) and protects them before sending them out of the network on the N32 […]


    The purpose of using an antenna array, as shown in Figure 7.1-A, is to enable high gain beams and the ability to steer those beams over a range of angles. The gain is achieved, in both UL and DL, by constructively combining signals from a number of antenna elements. The more antenna elements utilized, the […]


    Through our work with several mobile providers, we learned that majority of 5G deployments will be brownfield with upgrade from existing 3G/4G network. For mobile providers deploying 5G as greenfield new network, it has to interwork with 4G for roaming with other providers in same country or international roaming. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview […]

  • Network Slicing in 5G

    A network slice is a logical network serving a defined business purpose or customer, consisting of all required network resources configured together. It is created, changed and removed by management functions. Hence network slicing divides an operator’s physical network into multiple logical networks. These logical networks would permit the implementation of tailor-made functionality and network […]

  • 5G Vs WiFi – Convergence or Competition

    Guest post by Dr. Rizwan Ghaffar (linkedin) With the 5G deployment spreading rapidly, there is a question of what would be the future of Wi-Fi in the world connected by 5G. In my opinion, Wi-Fi and WWAN (wireless wide area networks) will continue their convergence/competitive journey along the road. They will coexist and play an […]

  • Question: From the perspective of UE why 5G is more secure than 2G/3G/4G?

    Answer: The 2G GSM systems were the first digital systems that performed the authentication of subscriber. The mobile was assigned a temporary identifier after the authentication so that it does not has to send the mobile subscriber’s permanent identity ‘IMSI’ on the air interface. And the voice was encrypted. However, 2G systems suffered from two […]

  • 7. IMS Procedure: VoLTE Call

    The initial stages of setting up a VoLTE call are the processes of the initial attach, P-CSCF discovery and creating the default bearer for SIP signaling (by registering with the IMS network and subscribing to a registration eventpackage).The first step in a VoLTE call setup is a SIP INVITE request initiated by the calling UE. […]

  • Voice and Video services over IMS in 5G

    5G voice/video service will still be provided based on IMS (5G as one of the access modes for IMS voice/video), and the introduction of 5G voice/video will not change the IMS network architecture. Support of IMS based services is based on GSMA NG.114 “IMS Profile for Voice, Video & Messaging over 5GS”. In the early […]

  • During the establishment of PDU session which Network Function in 5G assigns IP Address to UE?

    It is infact the SMF that assigns the IP address to the UE during PDU session establishment. However, SMF and UE cannot communicate directly. All the UE signalling to the core network is with/or via AMF. So SMF uses 5G Session Management (5GSM) protocol to assign the IP address to UE via AMF.

  • Q: Why in 5G, in addition to IP PDU session type, Ethernet PDU session type was introduced?

    Answer: In the IP PDU session type, the IP packets have source and destinations IP addresses in the IP header (e.g., an ipv6 adress is 128bits). As a result, this increases the size of the IP packet header. This is quite inefficient in mMTC and uRLLC use cases of 5G. In the scenario of mMTC, […]