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Through our work with several mobile providers, we learned that majority of 5G deployments will be brownfield with upgrade from existing 3G/4G network. For mobile providers deploying 5G as greenfield new network, it has to interwork with 4G for roaming with other providers in same country or international roaming. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview [...]

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A network slice is a logical network serving a defined business purpose or customer, consisting of all required network resources configured together. It is created, changed and removed by management functions. Hence network slicing divides an operator’s physical network into multiple logical networks. These logical networks would permit the implementation of tailor-made functionality and network [...]

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Guest post by Dr. Rizwan Ghaffar (linkedin) With the 5G deployment spreading rapidly, there is a question of what would be the future of Wi-Fi in the world connected by 5G. In my opinion, Wi-Fi and WWAN (wireless wide area networks) will continue their convergence/competitive journey along the road. They will coexist and play an [...]

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Answer: The 2G GSM systems were the first digital systems that performed the authentication of subscriber. The mobile was assigned a temporary identifier after the authentication so that it does not has to send the mobile subscriber’s permanent identity ‘IMSI’ on the air interface. And the voice was encrypted. However, 2G systems suffered from two [...]

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The initial stages of setting up a VoLTE call are the processes of the initial attach, P-CSCF discovery and creating the default bearer for SIP signaling (by registering with the IMS network and subscribing to a registration eventpackage).The first step in a VoLTE call setup is a SIP INVITE request initiated by the calling UE. [...]

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5G voice/video service will still be provided based on IMS (5G as one of the access modes for IMS voice/video), and the introduction of 5G voice/video will not change the IMS network architecture. Support of IMS based services is based on GSMA NG.114 “IMS Profile for Voice, Video & Messaging over 5GS”. In the early [...]

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It is infact the SMF that assigns the IP address to the UE during PDU session establishment. However, SMF and UE cannot communicate directly. All the UE signalling to the core network is with/or via AMF. So SMF uses 5G Session Management (5GSM) protocol to assign the IP address to UE via AMF.

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Answer: In the IP PDU session type, the IP packets have source and destinations IP addresses in the IP header (e.g., an ipv6 adress is 128bits). As a result, this increases the size of the IP packet header. This is quite inefficient in mMTC and uRLLC use cases of 5G. In the scenario of mMTC, [...]

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