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In 5G the basestation is called as the gNB. According to the 3GPP recommendation TR 38.801, the gNB is further subdivided into the Centralized Unit (CU) and Distributed Unit (DU) as shown in the diagram below. The Centralized Unit is used to support higher layer protocols like SDAP, PDCP, and RCC. While the lower layer [...]

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Background Although Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) has been the main Fronthaul interface standard, many operators started to question its suitability to high bandwidth 5G use cases. Improvements to efficiency and link capacity utilization were requested. Also advanced networking and OAM features of mainstream packet transport standards were requested. What is CPRI? A digital public [...]

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Principles of 8T8R Beamforming Beamforming is a digital signal processing technology that can be implemented on adaptive 8T8R array antennas. Baseband weighting of multiple antennas transmitting signals is used to form high-gain, narrow beams. These beams target user devices, improving signal strength and reducing interference, as shown in the figure 1 below. 8T8R Antenna Introduction [...]

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The purpose of using an antenna array, as shown in Figure 7.1-A, is to enable high gain beams and the ability to steer those beams over a range of angles. The gain is achieved, in both UL and DL, by constructively combining signals from a number of antenna elements. The more antenna elements utilized, the [...]

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Q. What is FTTH? Ans. FTTH stands for Fiber to the Home Q. What is GPON? Ans. GPON stands for Gigabit Passive Optical Network. A passive optical network (PON) is a networkarchitecture that brings fiber cabling direct to the home using a point-to-multipoint scheme that enablesa single optical fiber to serve multiple premises & Customers. [...]

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Through our work with several mobile providers, we learned that majority of 5G deployments will be brownfield with upgrade from existing 3G/4G network. For mobile providers deploying 5G as greenfield new network, it has to interwork with 4G for roaming with other providers in same country or international roaming. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview [...]

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The IMS is designed to provide number of key capabilities required to enable new IPservices via mobile and fixed networks. The important key functionalities whichenable new mobile IP services are: Multimedia session negotiation and managementQuality of service managementMobility managementService execution, control and interaction Now we discuss the important features of IMS like addressing, registration, chargingand [...]

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IMS Charging Accounting is the process of collecting information about resource consumption. While accounting data can be used for multiple purposes such as capacity and trend analysis or cost allocation, it particularly forms the basis for the charging and latter billing of a user. The IMS defines two charging modes: online and offline. Online charging [...]

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After the registration, the user is able to access the services and starts session establishment process. This process is briefly explained as follows and depicted in figure The Caller’s UE (UE-A) constructs an INVITE request that includes registered public user identity of called user (UE-B).All SIP messages must traverse the Proxy Call Session Control Function [...]

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The addressing in IMS is called SIP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) and looks like an email address. In order to use IMS services, the UE must perform IMS registration. First the UE must obtain an IP connectivity bearer and discover an IMS entry point i.e. P-CSCF. After the P-CSCF discovery, the UE sends a SIP [...]

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