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Modulated 4 ASK Signal

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is a type of digital modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied with respect to the digital message. If we send one bit/symbol, we call it as Binary Amplitude Shift Keying (BASK), in which case the carrier amplitude is assumed to have 2 values (one corresponding to 1 and other corresponding to [...]

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BPSK Modulated Signal Waveform

Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) is a type of digital modulation technique in which we are sending one bit per symbol i.e., '0' or a '1'. Hence, the bit rate and symbol rate are the same. Depending upon the message bit, we can have a phase shift of 0o or 180o with respect to a [...]


Recently I have made a youtube video in order to explain the evolution of mobile communication systems from the 1G to the 5G. The key differences between these technologies have been explained in a simple and easy to understand manner. Please leave your comments if you found this video helpful and what improvements can be [...]


The first operational 1G Cellular System was introduced and implemented by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Company (NTT) in Tokyo, Japan in 1979. After two years 1G Mobile Systems reached Europe and two most famous 1G systems were introduced and implemented in Europe that are Nordic Mobile Telephones (NMT) and Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). The [...]


Rapid advancement in Mobile Communication Technology has shaken-up the way, the users access Mobile Network for data streaming and voice communication. Although, history of Mobile Communication dates back to prehistoric time, Galileo’s work & Armstrong's finding was a watershed in this regard. Other turning point that evolved and revolutionized this domain was the involvement of [...]

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Bipolar NRZ-L, Bipolar RZ, Manchester-L

In order to transmit the bits over a physical channel they must be transformed into a physical waveform. A line coder or baseband binary transmitter transforms a stream of bits into a physical waveform suitable for transmission over a channel. Line coders use the terminology mark for “1” and space to mean “0”. In a [...]

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