During the establishment of PDU session which Network Function in 5G assigns IP Address to UE?
It is infact the SMF that assigns the IP address to the UE during PDU session establishment. However, SMF and UE cannot communicate directly. All the UE signalling to the core network is with/or via AMF. So SMF uses 5G Session Management (5GSM) protocol to assign the IP address to UE via AMF.
Q: Why in 5G, in addition to IP PDU session type, Ethernet PDU session type was introduced?
Answer: In the IP PDU session type, the IP packets have source and destinations IP addresses in the IP header (e.g., an ipv6 adress is 128bits). As a result, this increases the size of the IP packet header. This is quite inefficient in mMTC and uRLLC use cases of 5G. In the scenario of mMTC, […]
Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) Modulation And Demodulation-Matlab Code With Explanation
Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) is a type of digital modulation technique in which we are sending one bit per symbol i.e., ‘0’ or a ‘1’. Hence, the bit rate and symbol rate are the same. In BFSK, the information is encoded in the variation of the frequency of the carrier. We represent ‘0’ by carrier frequency […]
Evolution Of Mobile (Cellular) Systems From 1G To 5G Explained (Video)
Recently I have made a youtube video in order to explain the evolution of mobile communication systems from the 1G to the 5G. The key differences between these technologies have been explained in a simple and easy to understand manner. Please leave your comments if you found this video helpful and what improvements can be […]
Development OF First Generation Mobile Communication Systems
The first operational 1G Cellular System was introduced and implemented by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Company (NTT) in Tokyo, Japan in 1979. After two years 1G Mobile Systems reached Europe and two most famous 1G systems were introduced and implemented in Europe that are Nordic Mobile Telephones (NMT) and Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). The […]
Comparison And Evolution Of Mobile Communication Networks From 1G To 4G
Rapid advancement in Mobile Communication Technology has shaken-up the way, the users access Mobile Network for data streaming and voice communication. Although, history of Mobile Communication dates back to prehistoric time, Galileo’s work & Armstrong’s finding was a watershed in this regard. Other turning point that evolved and revolutionized this domain was the involvement of […]
Matlab Simulation Of Line Codes And Their PSD Comparison
In order to transmit the bits over a physical channel they must be transformed into a physical waveform. A line coder or baseband binary transmitter transforms a stream of bits into a physical waveform suitable for transmission over a channel. Line coders use the terminology mark for “1” and space to mean “0”. In a […]